Archives For Heidegger

Author Information: Jeff Kochan, University of Konstanz,

Kochan, Jeff. “On the Sociology of Subjectivity.” Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 7, no. 5 (2018): 39-41.

The pdf of the article gives specific page references. Shortlink:

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As the original photographer put it, “Shelves full of Heidegger.”
Image by Justin Yost via Flickr

Raphael Sassower has the rhetorician’s gift for creating pithy and compelling images to ornament his arguments. In this instance, he has me presiding over a forced marriage between Heidegger and sociologists of scientific knowledge. I’m relieved that he didn’t put a shotgun in my hands. At the end of his review, Sassower asks: ‘would the couple ever have consented to this on their own? And if the answer is no, who are we to force this on them?’ Momentarily granting the legitimacy of Sassower’s image, the answer to his first question is: no.

Freedom of Interpretation

Neither Heidegger nor SSK practitioners thought they were formulating an incomplete account of science, thereafter desperately awaiting its consummation through a union with they knew not what. Luckily, these scholars also made their works public, so we’re free to play with them as we like (within legal limits). In answer to Sassower’s second question, since published texts are not the sort of thing that can either give or withhold consent, it’s nonsense to say that anything can be forced on them in the way he implies. Here, Sassower’s image falls apart.

Granted, one could potentially charge me with a ‘forced’ interpretation of some of the texts I discuss. But one should then show this, not just say it. Anyway, much interesting work has been produced through the careful misinterpretation of past scholarship. If, based on evidence and argument, I were found guilty of this, I should not complain.

Using an unfortunate heteronormative gender assignment, Sassower has me arguing that ‘Heidegger […] presents an ideal groom who can offer his SSK bride the theoretical insights of overcoming the Cartesian-Kantian false binary of subject-object (11).’ Page 11 of my book, where evidence for this characterisation ostensibly lies, says only that ‘Heidegger deconstructs the Kantian subject-object distinction.’ Later, on page 40, one finds the sentence: ‘It must be emphasised […] that Heidegger does not dismiss the orthodox subject-object distinction as a false account of the subject’s relation to the world.’ The point is that the orthodox subject-object distinction, despite its many intellectual merits, brings with it some intractable problems. One is the problem of the external world. Those who subscribe to the distinction, and who also claim to be realists, remain vulnerable to sceptical attack regarding the existence of the external world.

The Importance of Heidegger’s Deconstruction

In Chapter One, I argue that SSK practitioners, though certainly aware of and actively contending with this problem, have nevertheless remained vulnerable to it. I propose to remove this vulnerability by combining SSK with Heidegger’s deconstruction of the subject-object distinction, which treats it as a ‘founded mode’ dependent on our phenomenologically more basic experience of being in the world.

Why might this be important? Because, as I demonstrate in Chapters Two and Three, SSK’s competitors in the broader field of science studies have exploited these vulnerabilities in order to discredit SSK and successfully erect their own, different, methodologies. My goal is to show that, with some help from Heidegger, these attacks can be deflected, thereby leaving SSK’s methodology intact and ready for action.

Sassower’s review overlooks my discussion of this internal dispute in the sociology of science. As a result, in what appears to be an objection directed at me, he argues that the role of the social subject in scientific knowledge production is already well-established, his point presumably being that my book adds nothing new. According to Sassower, ‘as philosophers of science have understood for a century […], the observer is an active participant in the observation.’

But that’s not all: ‘Add to this the social dimension of the community of observers-participants and the social dynamics to which they are institutionally subjected, and you have the contemporary landscape that has transformed the study of Science into the study of Scientific Community and eventually into the study of the Scientific Enterprise.’ This is a tidy and commonplace history of science studies, one from which the role of SSK has been quietly erased.

What do I mean by this? On page 1 of my book, I write that SSK – also known as the ‘strong programme’ in the sociology of scientific knowledge – arose in critical response to what was retrospectively dubbed the ‘weak programme’ in the sociology of science: ‘The weak programme focussed mainly on institutional studies of the scientific community.’ This sounds like Sassower’s description of scientists as being ‘institutionally subjected’ to social dynamics, as well as his description of science studies as the study of ‘Scientific Community’ and the ‘Scientific Enterprise.’ Here, the core epistemic products of scientific practice – theories and facts – as well as the means by which they are produced – techniques and methods – are excluded from sociological analysis.

This is an exclusion that ‘strong programme’ practitioners sought to overcome. For their efforts, they were ferociously attacked by historians, philosophers, and sociologists alike. Why? Sassower’s popular, potted history cannot answer this question, because it fails to recognise science studies as a field of historical contestation. From the century-old insight of philosophers of science that observation is theory-laden, the current state of social studies of science naturally flows – says Sassower. It’s always nicer when the bodies have been neatly buried.

A Book’s Immanent Domain

Sassower has another objection. To wit: ‘what about the dynamics of market capitalism and democratic political formations? What about the industrial-academic-military complex?’ My answer: what about them? These are not what my book is about. Sassower seems to object that I wrote the book I did, rather than some other book. To this charge I happily admit my guilt. But it goes on. Having granted that science is social, Sassower asks: ‘does this recognition alone suffice to understand that neoliberalism has a definite view of what the scientific enterprise is supposed to accomplish?’ My answer: no it doesn’t – and what of it? My book isn’t about that either.

I’m not a political theorist, nor do I desire to become one. Nevertheless, Chapter Seven of my book does address some issues that may interest those engaged in political theory. As Sassower notes, in Chapter Seven I ‘nod’ to those, discussed in earlier chapters, whom I now retrospectively name ‘conservative’ and ‘liberal’ critics of SSK. (The ‘nod’ to liberals was a prolonged one, spanning most of Chapters Two and Three.)

My claim was that both kinds of critic are united in their rejection of subjectivity as a legitimate theme for micro-sociological study. The conservatives reject the subject as being, at best, just one more object among objects. The liberals reject the subject as being irremediably infected with the Kantian subject-object distinction. Because they reject this distinction tout court, they also reject the subject. With this, the sociological study of subjectivity is prohibited.

What interests these critics instead are fields of practice. Within these fields, the subject is constituted. But the fundamental unit of analysis is the field – or system – not the subject. Subjectivity is, on this theory, a derivative phenomenon, at best, a secondary resource for sociological analysis.

From my perspective, because subjectivity is fundamental to human existence, it cannot be eliminated in this way. In reality, the liberal account submerges subjectivity in fields of practice, where it effectively disappears from the analyst’s view. I call this position ‘liberal’ because it seems to rely on a tacit model of the subject as being unconstrained by social and historical limits.

If the existential subject is not properly acknowledged to exist, then how can its limits be acknowledged, much less studied and understood? And if the subject really does, in fact, exist, but one can’t ascribe limits to it, then doesn’t this reflect a liberal notion of negative freedom? Taking a phrase from Baudelaire, I liken this model of the subject to ‘a prince who everywhere enjoys his incognito’ (379). By offering an alternative to this model, by combining Heidegger with SSK, I hope, through my book, to equip those scholars who are keen to challenge and expose this incognito.

Contact details:


Kochan, Jeff. Science as Social Existence: Heidegger and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2017.

Sassower, Raphael. “Heidegger and the Sociologists: A Forced Marriage?.” Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 7, no. 5 (2018): 30-32.

Author Information: Raphael Sassower, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs,

Sassower, Raphael. “Heidegger and the Sociologists: A Forced Marriage?.” Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 7, no. 5 (2018): 30-32.

The pdf of the article gives specific page references. Shortlink:

The town of Messkirch, the hometown of Martin Heidegger.
Image by Renaud Camus via Flickr / Creative Commons


Jeff Kochan is upfront about not being able “to make everyone happy” in order to write “a successful book.” For him, choices had to be made, such as promoting “Martin Heidegger’s existential conception of science . . . the sociology of scientific knowledge . . . [and the view that] the accounts of science presented by SSK [sociology of scientific knowledge] and Heidegger are, in fact, largely compatible, even mutually reinforcing.” (1) This means combining the existentialist approach of Heidegger with the sociological view of science as a social endeavour.

Such a marriage is bound to be successful, according to the author, because together they can exercise greater vitality than either would on its own.  If each party were to incorporate the other’s approach and insights, they would realize how much they needed each other all along. This is not an arranged or forced marriage, according to Kochan the matchmaker, but an ideal one he has envisioned from the moment he laid his eyes on each of them independently.

The Importance of Practice

Enumerating the critics of each party, Kochan hastens to suggest that “both SSK and Heidegger have much more to offer a practice-based approach to science than has been allowed by their critics.” (6) The Heideggerian deconstruction of science, in this view, is historically informed and embodies a “form of human existence.” (7) Focusing on the early works of Heidegger Kochan presents an ideal groom who can offer his SSK bride the theoretical insights of overcoming the Cartesian-Kantian false binary of subject-object (11) while benefitting from her rendering his “theoretical position” more “concrete, interesting, and useful through combination with empirical studies and theoretical insights already extant in the SSK literature.” (8)

In this context, there seems to be a greater urgency to make Heidegger relevant to contemporary sociological studies of scientific practices than an expressed need by SSK to be grounded existentially in the Heideggerian philosophy (or for that matter, in any particular philosophical tradition). One can perceive this postmodern juxtaposition (drawing on seemingly unrelated sources in order to discover something novel and more interesting when combined) as an attempt to fill intellectual vacuums.

This marriage is advisable, even prudent, to ward off criticism levelled at either party independently: Heidegger for his abstract existential subjectivism and SSK for unwarranted objectivity. For example, we are promised, with Heidegger’s “phenomenology of the subject as ‘being-in-the-world’ . . . SSK practitioners will no longer be vulnerable to the threat of external-world scepticism.” (9-10) Together, so the argument proceeds, they will not simply adopt each other’s insights and practices but will transform themselves each into the other, shedding their misguided singularity and historical positions for the sake of this idealized research program of the future.

Without flogging this marriage metaphor to death, one may ask if the two parties are indeed as keen to absorb the insights of their counterpart. In other words, do SSK practitioners need the Heideggerian vocabulary to make their work more integrated? Their adherents and successors have proven time and again that they can find ways to adjust their studies to remain relevant. By contrast, the Heideggerians remain fairly insulated from the studies of science, reviving “The Question Concerning Technology” (1954) whenever asked about technoscience. Is Kochan too optimistic to think that citing Heidegger’s earliest works will make him more rather than less relevant in the 21st century?

But What Can We Learn?

Kochan seems to think that reviving the Heideggerian project is worthwhile: what if we took the best from one tradition and combined it with the best of another? What if we transcended the subject-object binary and fully appreciated that “knowledge of the object [science] necessarily implicates the knowing subject [practitioner]”? (351) Under such conditions (as philosophers of science have understood for a century), the observer is an active participant in the observation, so much so (as some interpreters of quantum physics admit) that the very act of observing impacts the objects being perceived.

Add to this the social dimension of the community of observers-participants and the social dynamics to which they are institutionally subjected, and you have the contemporary landscape that has transformed the study of Science into the study of the Scientific Community and eventually into the study of the Scientific Enterprise.

But there is another objection to be made here: Even if we agree with Kochan that “the subject is no longer seen as a social substance gaining access to an external world, but an entity whose basic modes of existence include being-in-the-world and being-with-others,” (351) what about the dynamics of market capitalism and democratic political formations? What about the industrial-academic-military complex? To hope for the “subject” to be more “in-the-world” and “with-others” is already quite common among sociologists of science and social epistemologists, but does this recognition alone suffice to understand that neoliberalism has a definite view of what the scientific enterprise is supposed to accomplish?

Though Kochan nods at “conservative” and “liberal” critics, he fails to concede that theirs remain theoretical critiques divorced from the neoliberal realities that permeate every sociological study of science and that dictate the institutional conditions under which the very conception of technoscience is set.

Kochan’s appreciation of the Heideggerian oeuvre is laudable, even admirable in its Quixotic enthusiasm for Heidegger’s four-layered approach (“being-in-the-world,” “being-with-others,” “understanding,” and “affectivity”, 356), but does this amount to more than “things affect us, therefore they exist”? (357) Just like the Cartesian “I think, therefore I am,” this formulation brings the world back to us as a defining factor in how we perceive ourselves instead of integrating us into the world.

Perhaps a Spinozist approach would bridge the binary Kochan (with Heidegger’s help) wishes to overcome. Kochan wants us to agree with him that “we are compelled by the system [of science and of society?] only insofar as we, collectively, compel one another.” (374) Here, then, we are shifting ground towards SSK practices and focusing on the sociality of human existence and the ways the world and our activities within it ought to be understood. There is something quite appealing in bringing German and Scottish thinkers together, but it seems that merging them is both unrealistic and perhaps too contrived. For those, like Kochan, who dream of a Hegelian aufhebung of sorts, this is an outstanding book.

For the Marxist and sociological skeptics who worry about neoliberal trappings, this book will remain an erudite and scholarly attempt to force a merger. As we look at this as yet another arranged marriage, we should ask ourselves: would the couple ever have consented to this on their own? And if the answer is no, who are we to force this on them?

Contact details:


Kochan, Jeff. Science as Social Existence: Heidegger and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2017.

Author Information: Bonnie Talbert, Harvard University, USA,

Talbert, Bonnie. “Paralysis by Analysis Revisited.” Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 7, no. 1 (2018): 6-9.

Please refer to:

The pdf of the article gives specific page references. Shortlink:

Illustration by Lemuel Thomas from the 1936 Chesapeake and Ohio Railway Calendar.
Image by clotho39 via Flickr / Creative Commons


In his reply to my article “Overthinking and Other Minds: the Analysis Paralysis” (2017), Joshua Bergamin (2017) offers some fascinating thoughts about the nature of our knowledge of other people.

Bergamin is right in summarizing my claim that knowing another person involves fundamentally a know-how, and that knowing all the facts there is to know about a person is not enough to constitute knowing her. But, he argues, conscious deliberate thinking is useful in getting to know someone just as it is useful in learning any type of skill.

Questions of Ability

The example he cites is that of separating an egg’s yoke from its white—expert cooks can do it almost automatically while the novice in the kitchen needs to pay careful, conscious attention to her movements in order to get it right. This example is useful for several reasons. It highlights the fact that learning a skill requires effortful attention while engaging in an activity. It is one thing to think or read about how to separate an egg’s white from its yoke; it is quite another thing to practice it, even if it is slow going and clumsy at first. The point is that practice rather than reflection is what one has to do in order to learn how to smoothly complete the activity, even if the first attempts require effortful attention.[1]

On this point Bergamin and I are in agreement. My insistence that conscious deliberate reflection is rarely a good way to get to know someone is mostly targeted at the kinds of reflection one does “in one’s own head”. My claim is not that we never consciously think about other people, but that consciously thinking about them without their input is not a good way to get to know them.  This leads to another, perhaps more important point, which is that the case of the egg cracking is dissimilar from getting to know another person in some fundamental ways.

Unlike an egg, knowing how to interact with a person requires a back and forth exchange of postures, gestures, words, and other such signals. It is not possible for me to figure out how to interact with you and simply to execute those actions; I have to allow for a dynamic exchange of actions originating from each of us. With the egg, or any inanimate object, I am the only agent causing the sequence of events. With another person, there are two agents, and I cannot simply decide how to make the interaction work like I want it to; I have to have your cooperation. This makes knowing another person a different kind of enterprise than knowing other kinds of things.[2]

I maintain that most of the time, interactions with others are such that we do not need to consciously be thinking about what is going on. In fact, the behavioral, largely nonverbal signals that are sent nearly instantaneously to participants in a conversation occur so quickly that there is rarely time to reflect on them. Nevertheless, Bergamin’s point is that in learning an activity, and thus by extension, in getting to know another person as we learn to interact with her, we may be more conscious of our actions than we are once we know someone well and the interactions “flow” naturally.

Knowing Your Audience

I do not think this is necessarily at odds with my account. Learning how to pace one’s speech to a young child when one is used to speaking to adults might take some effortful attention, and the only way to get to the point where one can have a good conversation (if there is such a thing) with a youngster is to begin by paying attention to the speed at which one talks. I still think that once one no longer has to think about it, she will be better able to glean information from the child and will not have her attention divided between trying to pay attention to both what the child is doing and how she sounds herself.

It is easier to get to know someone if you are not focused on what you have to do to hold up your end of the conversation. But more than whether we are consciously or unconsciously attending to our actions in an interaction, my point is that reflection is one-sided while interaction is not, and it is interaction that is crucial for knowing another person. In interaction, whether our thought processes are unconscious or conscious, their epistemic function is such that they allow us to coordinate our behavior with another person’s. This is the crucial distinction from conscious deliberation that occurs in a non-interactive context.

Bergamin claims that “breakdowns” in flow are more than just disruptive; rather, they provide opportunities to learn how to better execute actions, both in learning a skill and in getting to know another person. And it is true that in relationships, a fight or disagreement can often shed light on the underlying dynamics that are causing tension. But unlike the way you can learn from a few misses how to crack an egg properly, you cannot easily decide how to fix your actions in a relationship without allowing for input from the other party.

Certain breakdowns in communication, or interruptions of the “flow” of a conversation can help us know another person better insofar as they alert us to situations in which things are not going smoothly. But further thinking does not always get us out of the problem–further interacting does. You cannot sort it out in your head without input from the other person.

My central claim is that knowing another person requires interaction and that the interactive context is constitutively different from contexts that require one-sided deliberation rather than back and forth dynamic flows of behavioral signals and other information. However, I also point out that propositional knowledge of various sorts is necessary for knowing another person.

Bergamin is correct to point out that in my original essay I do not elaborate on what if anything propositional, conscious deliberative thinking can add to knowing another person. But elsewhere (2014) I have argued that part of what it means to know someone is to know various things about her and that when we know someone, we can articulate various propositions that capture features of her character.

In the essay under discussion, I focus on the claim that propositional knowledge is not sufficient for knowing another person and that we must start with the kind of knowledge that comes from direct interaction if we are to claim that we know another person. We do also gain useful and crucial propositional knowledge from our interactions as well as from other sources that are also part of our knowledge of others, but without the knowledge that comes only from interaction we would ordinarily claim to know things about a person, rather than to know her.

Bergamin is also right in asserting that my account implies that our interactions with others do not typically involve much thinking in the traditional sense. They are, as he speculates, “immersive, intersubjective events…such that each relationship is different for each of us and to some extent out of our control.”  This is partly true. While I might share a very different relationship to Jamie than you do, chances are that we can both recognize certain features of Jamie as being part of who he is. I was struck by this point at a recent memorial service when people with very different relationships spoke about their loved one, impersonating his accent, his frequently used turns of phrase, his general stubbornness, generosity, larger than life personality and other features that everyone at the service could recognize no matter whether the relationship was strictly professional, familial, casual, lasting decades, etc.

I have tentatively spelled out an account (2014) that suggests that with people we know, there are some things that only the people in the relationship share, such as knowledge of where they had lunch last week and what was discussed. But there is also knowledge that is shared beyond that particular relationship that helps situate that relationship vis-à-vis other, overlapping relationships, i.e., while I share a unique relationship with my mother, and so does my sister-in-law, we can both recognize some features of her that are the same for both of us. Further, my sister–in-law knows that I am often a better judge of what my mother wants for her birthday, since I have known my mother longer and can easily tell that she does not mean it when she says she does not want any gifts this year.

Bergamin’s concluding thoughts about the Heideggerian nature of my project are especially insightful, and I too am still working on the speculative implications of my account, which posits that (in Bergamin’s words), “If people are ‘moving targets,’ then we are not ‘things’ but ‘processes,’ systems that are in constant flux. To know such a process is not to try to nail down the ever-changing facts about it, but involves interacting with it. Yet we who interact are ourselves a similar kind of ‘process,’ and in getting to know somebody we are just as much the known as the knower. Our relationships, therefore, are a kind of identity, that involves us and yet exceeds us — growing and evolving over time.” My hope is that this is a project on which we and many other scholars will continue to make progress.

Contact details:


Bergamin, Joshua. “To Know and To Be: Second-Person Knowledge and the Intersubjective Self, A Reply to Talbert.” Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 6, no. 10 (2017): 43-47.

Cleary, Christopher. “Olympians Use Imagery as Mental Training.” New York Times,  February 22, 2014,

Talbert, Bonnie. “Knowing Other People: A Second-person Framework.” Ratio 28, no. 2 (2014): 190–206.

Talbert, Bonnie. “Overthinking and Other Minds: The Analysis Paralysis.” Social Epistemology 31, no. 6 (2017): 1-12.

[1] There is some research that shows that conscious thoughtful reflection, indeed “visualization” can help a person perform an activity better. Visualization has been used to help promote success in sports, business, personal habits, and the like. Process visualization, which is sometimes used with varying degrees of success in athletes, is interesting for my purposes because it does seem to help in performing an activity, or to help with the know-how involved in some athletic endeavors. I do not know why this is the case, and I am a bit skeptical of some of the claims used in this line of reasoning. But I do not think we could use process visualization to help with our interactions with others and get the same kind of results, for the actions of another person are much more unpredictable than the final hill of the marathon or the dismount of a balance beam routine. It is also useful to note that some sports are easier than others to visualize, namely those that are most predictable. For more on this last point and on how imagery can be used to enhance athletic performance, see Christopher Cleary’s “Olympians Use Imagery as Mental Training” (2014).

[2] This leads to another point that is not emphasized in my original essay but perhaps should have been. Insofar as I liken getting to know another person to the “flow” one can experience in certain sports, I do not sufficiently point out that “flow” in some sports, namely those that involve multiple people, involves something much more similar to the “know-how” involved in getting to know another person than in sports where there is only one person involved. Interestingly, “team sports” and other multi person events are not generally cited as activities whose success can be significantly improved by visualization.

Author Information: Rebecca Lowery, University of Texas at Dallas,

Lowery, Rebecca. “Our Filtered Lives: The Tension Between Citizenship and Instru-mentality.” Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 6, no. 2 (2017): 21-34.

The PDF of the article gives specific page numbers. Shortlink:

Please refer to:


Image credit: Daniela Munoz-Santos, via flickr

The central problem to be examined here is that the loss of the private self is a threat to the theory of citizenship, which rests upon the idea that a citizen is a person with both a private life and a public life, a distinction inherent in many traditional theories of citizenship. Without the restoration of a potent private sphere in the individual life, citizenship becomes thin and shallow, an unnecessary and antiquated theory, useful only as a convenient tool for organizing the masses.

The private life of the individual in today’s society is now intricately linked with technology. Thus it is impossible to explore the loss of the private self without also looking at the role of technology in the life of the citizen, specifically the sense in which a citizen’s relation to their own existence is technologically-mediated. To such an end, I will have recourse to Martin Heidegger as a thinker who explicates how technology transforms our relation with existence, or to use his term “being.”

Technology gives us an opportunity to relate to the environment, others, and ourselves differently. Rather than experience being as present to us, we have the opportunity for a mediated experience with being because of the power of technology. In itself, technology is a tool; it is a means to an end, not an end in itself, a mediator between person and reality. By allowing technology to mediate our experiences, we are succumbing to what Heidegger will call “ge-stell,”[1] or enframing, with the result that we see everything as instrumental (a sunset is no longer a sunset, but something to be captured by technology in the form of a photograph for the sake of posting). Today, relating to the world instru-mentally is more pervasive and more difficult to resist because of social media, a new phenomenon particular to postmodernity.

In order to see how technology influences citizenship, I am dependent on Hannah Arendt’s characterization of the social, private, public and political realms. One consequence of social media is that the sharing of one’s private life (be it sentiments, activities, or opinions) is acceptable and expected in the public sphere; indeed, it seems that more and more, the public sphere is constituted by private stories. Further, because technology operates through enframing, both the private and public spheres have become spaces of utility. This may be opposed to how Arendt will characterize these spheres or to how Heidegger juxtaposes enframing with the more primordial poiesis as a mode of relation. It would seem, then, that the private sphere is receding into the public. To regain a thriving theory of citizenship, one in which participation as a citizen is an honor both for the state and for the private self, means a move away from the functionalism that encapsulates us today.

And finally, the enframing that results in the loss of the public and private boundary is harmful not only to the theory of citizenship, but to our own beings as well. If we can return to a state of relating to the revealing of nature as non-mediated, and privilege the poetic over the technological, then our own beings will return to a more natural state that nurtures and values the private life. If such a change is made, then the new, substantial private life will be prepared to contribute to an equally substantial public sphere.

Instru-mentality, Technological Mediation and Enframing

Heidegger, in “The Question Concerning Technology”, provides the philosophical underpinnings that illuminate the core of the postmodern problem with regards to technology.[2] Taking some of his contributions, the links between the technology of social media, the public and private spheres, and citizenship become clearer.

According to Heidegger, as humans, our natural and primary way of relating to being is through poiesis, which is a “bringing into appearance” or a “bringing-forth”[3] of the essence of a thing, where essence is understood in terms of presencing. For example, an oak tree brings forth its essence, gives its presence to us by revealing itself to us as what it is. Yet, another way to relate to beings is through technology, and when beings are revealed to us through technological mediation, they are revealed in terms of instru-mentality. When beings are revealed in terms of instru-mentality, they are revealed as instruments to be used for some end. When beings are revealed in terms of presencing their essence, they are revealed as ends in themselves, that is, not for some other—instrumental—purpose.

The concept that Heidegger introduces in order to relate modern technology with being is that of “ge-stell,” perhaps best translated as “enframing.” Just as poiesis is a revealing of essence, so too is technology a way of revealing. Heidegger suggests that technology reveals beings as “standing reserve,” meaning that “everywhere, everything is ordered to stand by, to be immediately at hand, indeed to stand there just so that it may be on call for a further ordering.”[4] Consider the oak tree. What are the thoughts that cross the mind in the presence of the tree? If the thought is something along the lines of “I could use that tree to build a table” or “I should take picture of that and publicly share it on social media so that my friends will know, for sure, that I appreciate nature” then the tree is being experienced as standing reserve. Rather than appreciating the tree for itself, it is subjected to order based on how useful it is, and what it can be used for.

For Heidegger, enframing “challenges [man] forth, to reveal the real, in the mode of ordering, as standing reserve.”[5] Enframing itself is a summons, and the summons expresses itself every time we relate to reality with technology in mind. That which “challenges forth” is the summons, but it is not an external factor. Rather, the summons is purely internal, somewhat similar in experience to what we refer to as the “call of conscience,” an instinct, a desire, or a need to behave and act in a certain way. Just as an instinct is first present in the thought, and then brought either to action or non-action, so too does enframing involve two steps: the summons is heard to relate to an experience through the medium of technology; the response is either to act on the summons, or to turn away from the summons.

In fact, to act on the summons does not require the physical apparatus of technology. For example, my experience of my life becomes enframed when I think, “I am going to update my Facebook status.” When I hear the internal summons to share my current situation or disposition via social media it shows that I already have a relation to my existence as if it were standing reserve. Becoming habituated to the summons is like exchanging my own mentality for the instru-mentality of technological mediation. I relate to my existence as if it were something to be “posted,” and as a means to whatever ends may come from such “posting.” In other words, as my existence is revealed to me, being filtered through technological mediation, social media orders my understanding to see itself in terms of instru-mentality (cf. Scalambrino, 2015). In this way, acting on the summons completes the presencing of existence in terms of enframing and, done repeatedly, becomes habitual.

One way social media, such as Facebook, establishes control, that is orders our existence into standing reserve, is through the “inter-face” mechanisms users must learn to successfully navigate the technology (cf. Scalambrino, 2014). A subtle example of this, through enframing, is in terms of the media’s attractive terminology. Status updates are an opportunity for “sharing” with friends and family. Under the guise of human relations, Facebook becomes the mediator. Enframing is always present whenever the technological tools of social media are present. If I am enjoying the company of friends, and yet I have my iPhone always at hand ready to take pictures, respond to the people not really there (cf. Engelland, 2015), etc. then I have opened myself up to answer the summons immediately, and to express the summons—to allow technological mediation order me—by actually taking the picture, and actually texting someone back. The idea of a social situation that is not mediated by technology is a rare find now. Even if I am physically present with a friend, my phone is still mediating my experience. In fact, the pervasiveness of social media and smartphones coincides with enframing as usual and customary in regard to social interactions.

The habit of living life ordered through technological mediation, and therefore as standing reserve, is what we are up against. With the habituality and the instru-mentality sustained through technological mediation, especially social media, the issue of standing reserve appears even more pressing. Enframing does not mean that a person looks at life as though through a picture frame fit with technological lenses. Rather, enframing is a summons that calls to us, internally, to relate to the world and to each other in terms of standing reserve, or, as instruments, that is, objects to be used in some fashion (cf. Scalambrino, 2015). When the relation of presencing (or “essencing”) occurs through enframing rather than poiesis, then we relate to the being of another person in terms of their utility. Social media allows us to create a representation of ourselves for others to encounter.

Through a cyber dimension, we become distanced from others, but the great guise is that we think we are becoming closer to them. In our private lives, we live with a fear of always imposing on others because we are so used to the non- imposition that is associated with media communication (cf. de Mul, 2015). We sacrifice presence for absence in that we are merely present in terms of instru-mentality, when our relations are technologically-mediated.

Enframed identities compete for us to be them, like Ernst Jünger’s insights regarding the identity of “worker” or the Hollywood-fashioned identity of “celebrity,” and as if possessed by the efficiency of instru-mentality, we work to be our own paparazzi. Of course, there are a multitude of examples that can be drawn from social media that illustrate just how easy it is to live a filtered life, where relation to being becomes mediated. Postmodern technology looks like the publication of the private; it is “the manipulation of man by his own planning.”[6] For example, the “personalize your LinkedIn profile page” with an image that describes you, your interests, etc. Physically present personalities are readily substituted for the chance to control what aspects of your personality you want projected for others to see.

Yet, Facebook is perhaps the most primary example of people giving to the public updates on their private lives, updates which can then be liked, shared, and commented on. The original meaning of words such as “sharing” and “liking” receive a second definition based on the instru-mentality of social media. In other cases, people submit themselves to technology, and thus lose themselves. The technology is too powerful. One of the popular hash tags in social media is the #besomebody. The idea behind the trend is that you are told you are being somebody to yourself, but really it’s directed outward, trying to tell others that you are somebody. Thus, you allow your own being to be hijacked into pure judgment, the judgment of others, and their enframed judgment at that.

The role of enframing has been present for as long as technology has been present. Today, social media is one particular instance of technology, but it is one that makes enframing more and more difficult to escape because we are constantly and physically around the tools that make social media possible: the computer at home and at work, the phone in the pocket or hand, the tablet always within reach. One of the reasons social media deserves consideration is because for the first time in history technology is in the hands of the everyman. We no longer just have the technology of big machines. Now it is big machines in addition to the technology of the masses, the technology of social media.

Gianni Vattimo, in “Postmodernity, Technology, Ontology,” comments on how “Heidegger … remained stuck in a vision of technology dominated by the image of the motor and of mechanical energy.”[7] Nevertheless, though Heidegger wrote about technology in his own historical situation and relates enframing with modern technology (machines powered by motors directed at the control of nature) his ideas are still highly relevant in today’s culture (and perhaps more so than ever before considering that technology permeates all sectors of society).

Thus, there is also a historical motivation behind this paper. To fully appreciate the state we are in today, it is helpful to look at how technology, in our postmodern condition, is one of the reasons why the issues here deserve (perhaps urgent) consideration. The historical evaluation will not be a lengthy one: it is not necessary to trace technology beyond the historical transition from modernity to postmodernity to gain an understanding of why and how technology today has become a (seemingly) essential part of everyday life, and a factor of everyday-ness that is not without consequences.

While Heidegger’s account of how technology alters our relationship with being can be traced back to the origin of technology, in more recent history the shift from modernity to postmodernity provides an explanation for how and why the concept of enframing deserves particular attention today, in our postmodern world. Richard Merelman’s article “Technological Cultures and the Liberal Democracy in the United States”[8] highlights the shift from modern technology to postmodern technology in order to suggest a reason for the change in how citizens view American government and liberal democracy. His distinction between the directions of technology (which serves as the groundwork for his entire essay) is important here, because it reinforces the urgency of the social media and enframing issue.

Merelman points to the modern era, when technology was directed outwards towards the control of nature. However, the entire culture of technology during that era was translucent; the average citizen was able to understand how technology operated. However, with the transition to postmodern technology, the emphasis of invention became directed on the human person, rather than nature. New technologies geared towards human development and health allowed the former focus on nature to be redirected.

In the modern era, as Merelman writes “the self acted, technology responded, and nature yielded to the civilized control of society.”[9] Thus Bacon was justified and Descartes was fulfilled. In his New Organon, Bacon’s third axiom reads, “Human knowledge and human power come to the same thing, because ignorance of cause frustrates effect. For Nature is conquered only by obedience; and that which in thought is a cause, is like a rule in practice.”[10] Bacon was the first to introduce the idea of controlling nature, and thus he introduced this era of modernity. In extension of this transition, Descartes succinctly writes in his Discourse on Method that we must “render ourselves, as it were, masters and possessors of nature. This is desirable not only for the invention of an infinity of devices that would enable one to enjoy trouble-free the fruits of the earth and all the goods found there, but also principally for the maintenance of health …”[11] As Descartes points out, such mastery of nature is made possible by physics. The important point about modern technology is that it was directed outwards.

Furthermore, because the technology was directed outwards, the effects, as Merelman writes, were immediately observable and calculable. We do not see the same possibility for calculating in postmodern technology, because enframing is an internal summons. What is internal to the person is much more complicated than the control of nature. The results of enframing are much moresubtle, less clear, less comprehensible, and ultimately less scientific.

Modern technology lasted through World War II, and indeed it continues today. Much of our technology is meant to master nature. However, it has receded. The transition to postmodernism began in post-World War II American culture, and was in full force by the 1960s. Why did modernism end? Perhaps our control of nature, as Merelman suggests, goes too far. Why else would the rise of environmentalism occur simultaneously with the shift to postmodernism? We controlled too much of nature, and we drew back. This is one interpretation. But perhaps it is more likely that environmentalism is also the control of nature; it’s just cleverly disguised. By focusing less attention on the control of nature, it became possible for technology to be redirected towards the human person. The technology is still external to us, but its effects are now seen in the workings of the person, not just in nature. Soon, we may realize that this too must be reined it. The other cause for transition to postmodern technology is more natural and obvious: technology and science strives on. Man is not content with domination of nature; it must also dominate the two extremes sandwiching our earth: the solar system on one hand and the human person on the other.

Thus, with the transition to postmodern technology, the emphasis of invention became directed on the human person, rather than nature. New technologies geared towards human development and health allowed the former focus on nature to be redirected. Now, in the postmodern condition, one of the main purposes of technology is to understand the self. In some ways this was successful, for example the research regarding the human genome and mental illness. These are two examples that aid in understanding the self (though in no way is this meant to suggest that human persons can be reduced to their mental faculties and their inherited genetic traits.) But what does technological enframing look like today? We will see that rather than aiding in understanding the self we are compromising and sacrificing the self. This is done under the great guise of technology. Postmodern technology promises self-fulfillment, life improvement, self-betterment…but it is, for the most part, a deceit and the repercussions extend into many areas of life, including that of citizenship.

I am focused on the so called communication technology of social media as representative of postmodern technology, I do not think it can separated from the technology directed towards understanding man’s biology, in other words, medical technology. All of these separations still fall within the technology of information; it is merely expressed differently based on specific areas. For example, medical technology allows the illusion of facial reconstruction; communication technology allows for the illusion of the media persona, a not-there identity, entirely fabricated (not only by the fabricator, but also by others who can say what they want about others within this technology). It is interesting that, with regards to medical technology, Descartes was in a way foreshadowing the evolution of postmodernism when he speaks of the “maintenance of health” as one of the benefits of mastering nature.

So far, we have seen that technology, as a source of revealing, reveals to us being as standing reserve. Also examined was the historical perspective: that the transition from modernity to postmodernity, culminating in the social media that permeates our world today, brings the concept of enframing to the forefront due to the extreme accessibility and habitual use of social media. Now, with the previous progress in mind, we will begin to turn our attention to the effects of enframing in the realm of citizenship, which will necessarily mean the effects on our own beings as well. To the extent that enframing is a part of our every day life, I will argue that enframing is contributing greatly to the loss of the sense of the private self, without which the theory of citizenship cannot remain meaningful to the citizen.

From Enframing to the Efficiency of Postmodern Technology

For Arendt, society, and thus the social realm, is where “private interests assume public significance”[12] which takes the form “of mutual dependence for the sake of life and nothing else…and where the activities connected with sheer survival are permitted to appear in public.”[13] What is necessary for survival? Eating, shelter, and the education of the young become some of the constituents of the social realm. It seems that social media should not be called social media. There is nothing about social media that makes it necessary for survival.

The private on the other hand is a “sphere of intimacy”[14] where the happenings of the private life need not extend into the social realm. It is closed off from the eyes of others, except those personally involved in the sphere. Furthermore, it ought to revolve around real presencing. However, Arendt points out that in the modern era “modern privacy in its most relevant function, to shelter the intimate, was discovered as the opposite not of the political sphere but of the social, to which it is therefore more closely and authentically related.”[15]

For Arendt, it is clear that the private sphere is closely linked with the social (and not the public) sphere. Does this then mean that the social and the private have nothing to do with citizenship since they are thus severed from the political realm? By no means. We shall see that Arendt is drawing a chain, and connects the social sphere with the public sphere. For Arendt, the public and private do not co-exist snugly side-by-side. Rather, the social realm falls between them and knits them together, while at the same time allowing the two spheres to remain distinct. Some private issues (such as education) appear in the social realm, and then the social realm contributes to the public sphere.

Arendt has a specific definition of the private sphere. Shiraz Dossa summarizes Arendt’s conception of the private as such: “that privacy is the natural condition of men is a truism for Arendt: the needs and wants of the human body and the natural functions to which the body is subject are inherently private.”[16] Further, Arendt contrasts the category of the private with that of the public. The public realm is fascinating because it can be either social or political.[17] Traditionally, the public was aligned with the political. However, the larger the community, the more social the public will be. We are therefore losing our sense of the political and the private to the social and the public.

Arendt constitutes the public realm in two ways. The first is “that everything that appears in public can be seen and heard by everybody and has the widest possible publicity.”[18] However, Arendt’s public is not infiltrated with social media as it is today; thus our public realm has becomes a filtered reality. In another sense, for Arendt the public “signifies the world itself, in so far as it is common to all of us and distinguished from our privately owned place in it.”[19] How awesome is it that we have private ownership in this world! And it is equally awesome that there is a public sphere that balances the private. However, it is not necessary for social media to publicize that the world is common to all; the commonness should be enough in itself and has no need to be enframed.

The other point that Arendt is making is that the public realm is receding. During her time, the state of the public realm was no longer permanent. The permanency of the public sphere is highly important in Arendt’s philosophy because it means that what we create today is not only for our generation; the public today ought to take the future into consideration as well since “It is the publicity of the public realm which can absorb and make shine through the centuries whatever men may want to save from the natural ruin of time.”[20] The idea is to live in a world, and to create a world, that is strong enough to withstand time.

To overcome time suggests a worthiness of the pursuits engaged in creating something in the public sphere because then the works succeed the condemnation of mortal decay. They participate and gain access to an eternal realm (though an eternal realm still confined in the physical world). Perhaps Arendt is right: how much of our public world will withstand time? But in another sense, the opposite is happening: all is falling into the public. The private is being subsumed under the public, and the public now has its identity as social, and not political. If all that is left is the public sphere, then without the opposition of another sphere there can be no loss of the public: it’s permanency is parallel to a dictator, ruling with no contestants. Rather than the public being like a dictator, it should rather retain a healthy tension with the private sphere, each of the two acting as a balance for the other.

Presented above are Arendt’s definitions of the social, private, public and political realms, and how each relates to the others. The most significant one for present purposes is the distinction between the public and the private. It is clear that Arendt elevates the public realm, and I elevate the private realm. She speaks of rising from the private to the public. But I would not say the move from public to private is an ascent. I would rather say that they are on a horizontally-related, rather than vertically.

From Postmodern Technology to Boundary Blurring Between the Public and the Private

The enframing that occurs with social media is mediating our relation to real presences and thus necessarily it is directly affecting our private and public lives. When our private lives bleed into the public sphere via social media, the public sphere itself becomes a mirror image of mediated personalities. For Arendt, the public sphere means “something that is being seen and heard by others as well as by ourselves.” Granted, social media is seen and heard via technological devices, however the relation to what appears via technology is once removed from reality: it is a copy, and it is also an illusion.

As social media makes a stronger and more permanent presence in the world, the private realm becomes less and less significant because what used to be strictly present in the private realm can now easily be projected into the public realm. While social media exacerbates enframing, the issue at hand is nothing new. Arendt notes how in modernity “functionalization makes it impossible to perceive any serious gulf between the two realms.”[21] Thus it is function, enframing, and usefulness that blur the boundary between the public and private.

In addition to Arendt, Vattimo argues “what concerns us in the postmodern age is a transformation of (the notion of) Being as such—and technology, properly conceived, is the key to that transformation.”[22] Indeed, our notion of being is transformed, or at least filtered, by technology because of enframing. Vattimo characterizes enframing as “the totality of the modern rationalization of the world on the basis of science and technology.”[23] Thus, it is impossible to conceive of being as extending beyond enframing. As we have already seen, the rationalization that Vattimo speaks of is the utilitarian nature of enframing, an aspect that coincides with the pragmatism originating in the 20th century.

The very utility that is necessarily attached to pragmatism continues to presence itself today through enframing, made easy by social media. Vattimo clearly states: “I don’t believe that Pragmatist and Neopragmatist arguments are strong enough to support a choice for democracy, nonviolence, and tolerance.” Therefore, he supports an ontological rather than a pragmatic point of view, which, as a philosophical position, prefers “a democratic, tolerant, liberal society to an authoritarian and totalitarian one.”[24] To have a life not dominated by the enframing of technology is more conducive to democratic ideals. While the private and public spheres are necessary in any political system, democracy is our own current situation, which adds a definite relevance to the experience of enframing as opposed to other ways of relating to reality.

Before moving on to discussing how the lack of a boundary between the public and private influences the individual life of the citizen, there is a final point to be made about the republic, one that speaks to the very lifeblood of citizenship as a theory. Wilson Carey McWilliams, drawing on Tocqueville, states “freedom is not the mastery of persons and things; it is being what we are, subject to truth’s authority. No teaching is more necessary if the technological republic is to rediscover its soul.”[25] What we are sure to lose in our current trajectory is the soul of our nation. In an illusionary manner, social media is about mastery and the sense of feeling like we are in control. It is the delusion that we can control a relationship in a text message. It is becoming evident that time is a huge factor with social media: how quickly in time can an image go viral? How quick is the response to messages?

As we can control this factor of time while participating in social media, we allow ourselves to fall prey to the illusion of power. In social media, there is no subjection of the self, there is only self-proclamation. When the citizens of our republic have no soul, the soul of the republic suffers. The soul of the republic is only as great as the people who make up the republic. Nietzsche, drawing on Aristotle, asks if greatness of soul is possible.[26] If it is, social media is not helping in the nurturing of greatness since a soul that relates to being as not exceeding standing reserve loses all sense of mystery. When the souls of a nation are suffering, infected with a continually enframed view of being, then the very soul of a nation suffers as well, as it’s lifeblood is slowly shut off.

Some encourage the publication of the private as a signal of the advancement of mankind in the social realm. If the social realm were the highest, then such would be the case. But there are reasons why I hold the private to be of great significance: people begin their role as citizens in the private realm. The remedy of this problem is necessary if we are to remain as citizens, if citizenship is itself going to survive. All can be traced back to what is going on in the private realm. It determines our identities, which we then carry into the public realm.

A healthy citizen is a citizen who is able to distinguish the private from the public, and retain a balance between the two. To lose this, is to lose the capacity to be a citizen, and thus we face the collapse of the theory of citizenship. This theory only has existence in so far as we as individuals uphold it through our own existences as public and private beings. Thus as we continue to sacrifice our private selves, we are slowly chipping away at the theory of citizenship. Arendt approaches the same problem, but subordinates the private to the public. For her, a well-lived public sphere trickles down to the private sphere and improves it. Her ordering is necessary if the public sphere is where man truly fulfills his nature (the guiding principle of Civic Republicanism). The conclusion is the same for both of us: an identity as a citizen that involves both the public and the private spheres. We merely diverge on the privileging of spheres.

Furthermore, the boundary between the public and private self is a condition for citizenship in that a strong identity of the private self serves as preparation for a well-constituted public sphere. The enframing by technology today that is weakening the boundary between the private and the public thus has implications for the theory of citizenship. If a citizen lacks a foundation in their private life, then that citizen may as well be a foreigner to the system of citizenship that they are attempting to participate in. Just as a foreigner will lack the disposition to give credibility and care to the style of citizenship that is either not their own or that they have no intention of participating in, so too is the citizen who attempts to participate in the public sphere while lacking a hidden and private life. Since the public sphere is made of citizens, the only way to have a thriving citizenship is for a sense of strong personal identity with the state where the citizenry reside. The personal identity is established in the private sphere, where the soul learns to relate to reality, and then brings itself to help constitute the reality of the public. A citizen with no private life is like an apple with no core: it is all façade, with nothing substantial to contribute to permanency and foundation.

Finally, the private realm ought to remain unpublicized for the sake of retaining a unified self, and for the sake of self-reverence and mystery. Once publicized, reverence and mystery become obsolete. Paul A. Cantor and Cardinal Ratzinger offer ideas on what it means for the human person to exist without reverence and without mystery, two aspects of the human race that technology helps make disappear. When we then lose our sense of private identity we are losing a part of ourselves. Though we are incomplete beings, we accentuate and magnify our incompleteness through technology. It is entirely voluntary, and entirely unnecessary.

Paul A. Cantor writes: “when man chooses to revere nothing higher than himself, he will indeed find it difficult to control the power of his own technology.”[27] Social media is followed with an attentive reverence, but since social media is a platform for the self, reverencing social media is essentially reverencing one’s media self, and nothing higher. When the media acts as such a vice grip, it is difficult to remember to revere anything else. Reverence does not have to pertain to religion or belief systems. It can mean to honor the internal difference of the human person, out of humility recognizing that no representation ever captures the greatness of man. Why would we choose to honor media personas that strive so hard for coherence over the contemplation of actuality?

The reverence that Cantor is talking about is similar to Cardinal Ratzinger, in An Introduction to Christianity, asking,

But if man, in his origin and at his very roots, is only an object to himself, if he is ‘produced’ and comes off the production line with selected features and accessories, what on earth is man then supposed to think of man? How should he act toward him? What will be man’s attitude toward man when he can no longer find anything of the divine mystery in the other, but only his own know-how?[28]

Our publication of the private dehumanizes us, reduces us, and secludes us. I argue that it is not part of the fabric of reality. We see in the face of the other, not their inherent mystery, but a shell of their opinions. Our participation further reduces our own mystery that we hold to ourselves. If we are to truly have a public sphere that lasts more than a generation, then a “production line” creation is far too weak and fallible, since it is so easily changed and manipulated to match the going trends and styles of the day. The weakness of such a system is then expounded when it applies not just to the manufacturing of things, but to the manufacturing of people as well. Not only is the result a loss of beauty in the creation of the public sphere, but also man is demoted to robotic-like expectations, devoid of all “divine mystery.”

Ratzinger’s characterization and implications of the manufactured person is the same as Heidegger’s exploration of standing reserve, since standing reserve fully embraces utility, and leaves no room for mystery. As previously illustrated, enframing harms the private life and destroys hiddenness. Thus, the experience of reality (including the human person) as standing reserve that occurs through enframing is detrimental to the mystery of the person. Though the mystery of the person is explored in the public sphere, it finds its root and primary expression in the private sphere. But, what is the point of divinity, or eternity, when there is no birth of such things in the private sphere, and no sustenance for them in the public sphere?

A Public, Shallow Life

Arendt provides a succinct summation of the problem: “A life spent entirely in public, in the presence of others, becomes, as we would say, shallow.”[29] Our life is constituted by physical presences, both in the public and the private spheres. However, added to the real flesh of the physical world is the prominence of media presences (which are immaterial) that allow the individual to have a constant presence in the public sphere. When the media presences become the main way in which we relate our lives to the world around us, then we are looking at a great private loss. Along with the loss of the private self comes the loss of a profound and real theory of citizenship. Thus, if the overarching idea to be preserved is citizenship, then we must search for a way to preserve the hidden life, the private life. It is possible that such a reversal will change our embodiment in the fibers of apathy that currently constitutes the general perception of citizenship.

If enframing occurs because we respond to the summons that results in standing reserve, then a change in perception, an internal change, will radically derail enframing. An internal change towards external reality means escaping from enframing and (perhaps) returning to what Heidegger will call more “primordial,” a relation to the world that was possible prior to the power of technology that allowed for enframing in the first place. Ideally, it means seeking the inherent value present in the world, rather than living by standing reserve alone. It means returning to reverence, to soul, and to mystery, as opposed to total revealing in utility and a life that does not extend beyond what is manufactured and functional. Though utility cannot (and need not) be totally eradicated, utility also need not be privileged above other paths of relation.

Once enframing is held in check, the private realm will not sink so quickly into the public, and the two realms will once again become distinct. The internal opposition to enframing will put a hold on the constant filtration of reality, and thus allow for a wellspring of endurance, a new revealing of truth not based in usefulness, and a return to the hiddenness of the private sphere. The re-established privacy then re-draws the boundary between the public and the private, such that a newly well-established private sphere provides for a stronger sense of self, a better preparation for entering the public sphere. The strength of self not hindered in the public sphere infuses the soul of citizenship, and thus saves citizenship.


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Bacon, Francis. The New Organon. Eds. Lisa Jardine and Michael Silverthorne. Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 2000.

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Brenner, Leslie. “Goodbye, avatar.” Dallas Morning News: October 30, 2014.

Cantor, Paul A. “Romanticism and Technology: Satanic Verses and Satanic Mills.” In Technology in the Western Political Tradition, edited by Arthur M. Melzer, Jerry Weinberger, and M. Richard Zinman, 214-28. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1993.

de Mul, Elize. “Existential Privacy and the Technological Situation of Boundary Regulation.” In Social Epistemology and Technology: Toward Public Self-Awareness Regarding Technological Mediation, edited by Frank Scalambrino, 69-79. London: Rowman & Littlefield International, 2015.

Descartes, Rene. Discourse on Method. 3rd ed. Trans. Donald A. Cress. Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing Company, 1998.

Dossa, Shiraz. The Public Realm and the Public Self: The Political Theory of Hannah Arendt.  Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1989.

Eliot, T.S. “Burnt Norton.” In The Complete Poems and Plays, 117-22. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1971.

Engelland, Chad. “Absent to Those Present: The Conflict between Connectivity and Communion.” In Social Epistemology and Technology: Toward Public Self-Awareness Regarding Technological Mediation, edited by Frank Scalambrino, 167-177. London: Rowman & Littlefield International, 2015.

Heidegger, Martin. The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays. Trans. William Lovitt. New York: Harper & Row, 1977.

McWilliams, Wilson Carey. “Science and Freedom: America as the Technological  Republic.” In Technology in the Western Political Tradition, edited by Arthur M. Melzer, Jerry Weinberger, and M. Richard Zinman, 214-228. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1993.

Merelman, Richard M. “Technological Cultures and Liberal Democracy in the United States.” Science, Technology, & Human Values 25, no. 2 (Spring 2000): 167-94.

Ratzinger, Joseph Cardinal. Introduction to Christianity. Trans. J.R. Foster and Michael J.  Miller. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2000.

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Scalambrino, Frank. “What Control? Life at the Limits of Power Expression.” In Social Epistemology and Technology: Toward Public Self-Awareness Regarding Technological Mediation, edited by Frank Scalambrino, 101-111. London: Rowman & Littlefield International, 2015.

Vattimo, Gianni. “Postmodernity, Technology, Ontology.” In Technology in the Western Political Tradition, edited by Arthur M. Melzer, Jerry Weinberger, and M. Richard Zinman, 214-28. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1993.

[1] Heidegger, The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays, 19.

[2] Cf. Bambach, “Heidegger on The Question Concerning Technology and Gelassenheit.”

[3] Heidegger, The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays, 10.

[4] Ibid., 17.

[5] Ibid., 20.

[6] Ratzinger, Introduction to Christianity, 66.

[7] Vattimo, “Postmodernity, Technology, Ontology,” 223.

[8] Merelman, “Technological Cultures and Liberal Democracy in the United States.”

[9] Merelman, “Technological Cultures and Liberal Democracy in the United States,” 168.

[10] Bacon, The New Organon, 33.

[11] Descartes, Discourse on Method, 35.

[12] Arendt, The Human Condition, 35.

[13] Ibid., 46.

[14] Ibid., 38.

[15] Ibid., 38.

[16] Dossa, The Public Realm and the Public Self: The Political Theory of Hannah Arendt, 59.

[17] Arendt, The Human Condition, 43.

[18] Ibid., 50.

[19] Ibid.

[20] Arendt, The Human Condition, 55.

[21] Ibid., 33.

[22] Vattimo, “Postmodernity, Technology, Ontology,” 214.

[23] Ibid., 222.

[24] Ibid., 226.

[25] McWilliams, “Science and Freedom: America as the Technological Republic,” 108.

[26] Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil, 139.

[27] Cantor, “Romanticism and Technology: Satanic Verses and Satanic Mills,” 127.

[28] Ratzinger, Introduction to Christianity, 18.

[29] Arendt, The Human Condition, 71.

Author Information: Zachary Willcutt, Boston College,

Willcutt, Zachary. “The Enframing of the Self as a Problem: Heidegger and Marcel on Modern Technology’s Relation to the Person.” Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 6, no. 2 (2017): 11-20.

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Image credit: A Health Blog, via flickr

Discourse today often includes phrases such as “my neurons made me do it,” or “my brain does this or that.” Popular opinion increasingly maintains that the mind is identical to the brain. That is, social consciousness views the person as nothing more than a collection of chemicals and cells, resulting in the phenomenon, or perhaps the epiphenomenon, of consciousness, which has nothing incorporeal or interior about it. It is, following the pattern of the things in the world, supposed to be another physical thing. The contemporary collective consciousness knows that the human being is just another wholly material object, subjected to the same laws of causal determination as plants, atoms, and stars.

Following Heidegger, such social knowledge is shown to be the product of the present scientific and technological understanding of the self, subsuming consciousness, thought, emotions, passions, and choices as objects of empirical, scientific study, which uses various instruments to purportedly show that the person is her brain, converting the self into what Marcel calls a problem; however, this conflicts with the traditional perspective that the human is an immaterial soul. To defend the latter position, this article will deconstruct the claims of modern neuroscience to prevent the de-humanization of individuals that as the result of these claims now occurs.[1]

Enframing the Person as Brain

This understanding of the human person is consequent upon modern science, in particular neuroscience and psychology, which depend wholly on modern technology. There is thus a mutual relation between technology and science, leading to a process of the en-framing of the person as the brain. Martin Heidegger in The Question Concerning Technology sets forth the particulars of this process. He notes that there is a social awareness that modern technology “is based on modern physics as an exact science” (QCT, 14). In general, individuals are aware that their computers, cars, electricity, and other modern items, depend on scientific activity. Technology requires as its condition the development of scientific knowledge, in particular physics, without which microwaves and electricity would not be possible. However, just as technology depends on science, science depends on technology, since “modern physics, as experimental, is dependent upon technical apparatus and upon progress in the building of apparatus” (QCT, 14). The work of scientists in general is rooted in technology, which provides cyclotrons, electron tunneling microscopes, and spaceships that further scientific cognition.

Thus, the relation between science and technology is reciprocal; neither can exist without the other. Such reciprocity is becoming more clearly understood (QCT, 14). Modern technology and modern science mandate one another, one aiding the other, while each stands on the ground set forth by the other. In the context of mind-brain identity debates, this involves public awareness through social cognition of viewing the mind and person as nothing more than the brain, which is commonly held to be scientific knowledge, as dependent on modern technology such as brain scans. Without technology, contemporary neuroscience and cognitive science could never have developed. These fields require technology, which serves as their condition and has thus led to the furthering of mind-brain identity theories as social cognition.

The public predominance of such theories was described by Heidegger, in what he calls Gestell, usually translated into English as enframing, “the challenging claim which gathers man thither to order the self-revealing as standing-reserve” (QCT, 19). Standing-reserve occurs when “[e]verywhere everything is ordered to stand by, to be immediately at hand, indeed to stand there just so that it may be on call for a further ordering” (QCT, 17). The things of the world, and humans subsumed as part of the world, are arranged solely with respect to their use insofar as they may be employed for continued utilization. Entities and, more importantly, persons are reduced to their mere possibility of being used for some end. That persons have become standing-reserve is demonstrated by “the current talk about human resources” (QCT, 18). Individuals are integrated as parts into the whole of the technological systems dominating life, where individuals have value only insofar as they can be incorporated into the technological whole. Thus, enframing indicates the gathering and ordering of persons and things so that they are revealed as available for use.

In this context, Kisiel interprets enframing as ‘synthetic compositioning,’ indicating “artificiality to the system of positions and posits” (Kisiel 2014, 138). This translation for Gestell fully encompasses the meaning that Heidegger is trying to indicate, that the world and persons are brought together to be used for further instrumentality. That is, Gestell signifies the functionalization of persons and things into the disposability of the standing-reserve, which is ordering for the end of more ordering, with no end beyond that of such ordering. All that is, is reduced to its functionality. To synthetically compose the person as an instrument, he must be understood in terms of his instrumentality, his submission and application to technology, for he has become “a commodity to be stored, shipped, handled, delivered, and disposed of” (Bambach 2015, 10). In this state, humans “become the functionaries of technological positioning, we put ourselves in position to be stockpiled and surveyed” (Ibid). Technological-functionalization de-humanizes the person, whose individuality disappears within the system.

In this way, the person is a mere component of a machine, a machine that in the framework of mind-brain identity debates turns the self into a brain. Humans are synthetically composited as brains, destroying their uniqueness as persons, as they have become only material. The self is eclipsed by the impersonality of matter (cf. Scalambrino, 2015). Having no characteristics particular to a person, the brain belongs to no one, and vanishes into the nothingness of pure matter. For every brain is equally exchangeable as any other brain. As it has been established, technology requires modern science; thus, humans become objects of science in social consciousness, that they too might be ordered according to the orders of the ordering. This ordering, itself in its essence technological, necessitates that the person is considered as nothing more than his brain. For if he was not just a brain, he would have some aspect that escaped instrumentality; having been reduced to the order of instrumentality, he must therefore only be thought of in his physicality. Human beings are problematized as objects of natural scientific study, the socially common view among many scientists and much of western society today.

However, that the mind is identical to, or emerging from, the brain, despite the apparent scientific support for this conclusion, should be confronted with great scrutiny. For historically, most philosophers, religions, and cultures, have maintained a soul or spirit as the ground of personality, rather than mere matter. That such a view was so widely held dictates that it should be considered seriously.

On Reducing the Human Person

Augustine’s remarks in the narrative of Confessions that his mother Monica brought him “to birth, both in her flesh, so that [he] was born into this temporal light, and in her heart, so that [he] might be born into eternal light” (C 9.8.17). Here, Augustine has distinguished between the flesh and the heart, exteriority and interiority, that is, matter and spirit, respectively. For Monica gave birth to him in body, but also by her prayers for his soul gave birth to him in her heart as well. Her heart is in no way physical, being contrasted with the flesh; it is spiritual, which indicates it is not composed of anything material. The affective center of emotions of the human person is of the soul, indicating that the fundamental being of the self cannot be located in the material order.

During the Medieval period, Bonaventure with respect to the journey toward God that “[w]e must also enter into our soul, which is God’s image, everlasting, spiritual, and within us” (Journey of the Soul into God, 60). The soul, the self, is clearly considered as spiritual and interior, preventing it from being observed as if it were a material object. Humans are spiritual rather than physical beings. To be spiritual means that one thinks, desires, loves, cares, intends, and feels emotions and affects such as anger or joy.

Though not involving himself explicitly in the Critique of Pure Reason in debates on the nature of the person, Kant makes clear that the self is not physical. For “although all our cognition commences with experience, yet it does not on that account all arise from experience” (CPR B1). Experience is merely the stimulus for knowledge, rather than the ground; Kant observes that aspects of cognition do not find their source in the experience of the empirical world. Thus, there must be a transcendental, a priori root of knowledge, which indicates the person is not restricted to a mere body.

Now turning to the Mystery of Being, Marcel argues that modernity has reduced the human person to a problem as opposed to a mystery. A problem is that which “I find complete before me, but which I can therefore lay siege to and reduce … A genuine problem is subject to an appropriate technique by the exercise of which it is defined” (MB, 211). Problems are objective, and can be answered by a definite, adequate formula that will yield the requisite result. The human mind is capable of grasping problems as a whole, so that all aspects become visible, enabling the problem to be analyzed into its components. This is the process of the natural sciences. But when what is not genuinely a problem is considered as such, the result is a broken world. The latter consists in the reduction of personal identity to a “few sheets of an official dossier,” which is how “I am forced to grasp myself” (MB, 29).

Persons are compelled to understand themselves as mere instruments in the system set forth by the utilization of technology, where technocrats use science to justify their policies. As such, the human must be reduced to the brain, for if he has a mind, he would be thus not wholly subservient to the synthetic compositioning. To subject a person to technology mandates that he consider himself nothing more than a collection of neurons. Social consciousness leads individuals to submit to the control of those who produce scientific knowledge that furthers ordering society through technology under the reign of science. However, “there is within the human…something that protests against the sort of rape or violation of which he is the victim; and this torn, protesting state of the human creature is enough to justify us in asserting that the world in which we live is a broken world” (MB, 33).

The realm of technology destroys love, emotion, and care. The person is losing himself to his functionalization, in which he is a functionalized self that operates according to the deterministic laws of science; questions about his being are to be answered by examining as if he were merely another object in the world, a tree, planet, or mineral. He dwells, or more accurately fails to dwell, “in a mechanized world, a world deprived of passion” (MB 24). Through rigorous scientific analysis, all that is valuable in the person is detected and employed. The world of humanity is converted into a set of functionalized selves in a techno-scientific system that has as its purpose only its own furtherance; the world is broken, life is extinguished.

By the interposition of a cybernetic or the techno-scientific self-understanding, such as the mind-brain identity thesis into social consciousness, “the will is re-directed toward a virtual dimension” (Scalambrino 2015, 5). Taken radically, moving beyond the dangers of virtual reality, Scalambrino is pointing to the general threat posed by the technologically-conditioned reduction of the person to the brain. When humans believe that they are nothing more than piles of chemicals, their wills are oriented toward the possibilities appropriate to a pile of chemicals. They live for, and deliberate in terms of, a pile of chemicals, rather than for themselves qua persons. For them, to be is to be a brain, with no meaning or purpose greater than that of a toad, snake, or some animal with a brain.

However, as daily experience testifies, as persons, individuals have a feeling of their being-beyond-the-world. The person is not his body, requiring a different approach, that of mystery. In this way, Marcel understands the person as mysterious, being that which “transcends every conceivable technique,” and “is itself like a river, which flows into the Eternal, as into a sea” (MB, 211, 219). A mystery is infinite; it is a vast depth that cannot be sounded. There is no method to a mystery, it cannot be represented or known as such, for it exceeds the capacity of the mind to represent it (MB, 69). An individual can only move about, may only live, in the mystery, a reservoir of inexhaustible richness. Unlike the problem, the mystery draws the person out of himself, and he is himself a mystery, as exemplified by characteristics of his own being. Marcel notes that “the act of thought itself must be acknowledged a mystery; for it is the function of thought to show that any objective representation, abstract schema, or symbolical process, is inadequate” (MB, 69). Thus, humans shatter the boundaries of the physical, even in their thinking, and so cannot be reduced to the brain.[2]

The Libet Experiment

Among the most famous experiments reducing the mind to the brain by free will being interpreted out of existence, the Libet experiment, as interpreted by Benjamin Libet himself, purports to show that human behavior can be accurately predicted by brain events prior to such behavior actually occurring. Specifically, this test asked persons who were watching a dot moving along a circle to flick their wrists when they “freely wanted to do so” (Libet 2002, 553).[3] After doing this, they reported W, “the clock-time associated with the first awareness of the wish [or urge] to move” (Libet 2002, 553). 550 msec before muscle movement an increase in readiness potential (RP) began. For Libet, “an appearance of conscious will 550 msec…before the act seemed intuitively unlikely” (Libet 2002, 553). Two types of tests were performed on the subjects, who in one such type had two sets of results. In one test, subjects were asked to spontaneously move, in which case they would at times report a “general intention…to act within the next second or so,” or have no such planning, while in the other test type, subjects responded to a randomly given stimulus, of which time they were not aware (Libet 2002, 554).

With respect to when the subject freely acted without planning, there was a buildup of RP, which has been termed RP II, and when the subject acted with prior intention, there also was a buildup of RP, identified as RP I. In the trial with the stimulus, there was no buildup of RP. With prior intention, RP I accumulated 1000 msec before muscle movement, while in the absence of pre-planning, RP II built up 550 msec prior to muscle movement, and 350 msec prior to the wish to act, which itself was 200 msec before the act (Libet 2002, 557). As the result of the buildup of RP, in particular RP II, Libet states that the “volitional process is…initiated unconsciously” (Libet 2002, 551).

A superior perspective on of the Libet experiment rather indicates that the brain is subsequent to the mind, such that mental states precede brain states, which is the case for several reasons. Firstly, every instance of build-up of RP in the brain and the wrist movement of the body was correlated in some way with the mental state of the desire to move. Readiness-potential and wrist movement only occurred in relation to the desire to move, indicating an intrinsic relation between conscious willing and physical, both brain and kinesthetic, action. The build-up of RP always was temporally determined by its relation to the desire to move, so that brain states correspond to mental states. Given that hands can only be moved by the person through commands sent from the brain, hands being corporeal, some sort of modification of the brain would be required to move the hand. That this modification exists is not perplexing, and provides nothing against free will.

RP I, the RP observed with respect to previous intention, only had a significant increase with the time of initial planning given by subjects, who were aiming to move around a second before muscle movement. The significant increase in RP occurred at the same time plans were reported to be developing, at 1000 msec, indicating that the muscles were being primed for motion by the intentions of the subject. With respect to RP II, that the increase in RP was 350 msec before the urge to move is not an indicator of the absence of free volition. For, as both a methodological and substantive issue with the Libet experiment is the definition of the conscious urge to move, which carries a variety of significations, especially in the word ‘urge;’ Libet also conflated urge with will or active wish to move. This indicates that a person is contemplating whether she has an urge to move, a process that could lead to a build-up of RP in the brain. She is deliberating whether she has such an urge at this particular instant. For an individual may have an urge to do something, urge understood as the feeling of desire, and yet hesitate to act on that desire. The decision to act on a desire is distinct from the presence of this desire. What the Libet experiment shows most clearly is that humans can feel impulses, upon which they then decide to act. Often, a person eats when his stomach feels empty, an emptiness that can be registered by monitoring the brain. But to say that that person is determined by such emptiness is absurd, as demonstrated by those who are gluttons or go on hunger strikes. Further, the self might not be hungry at all and yet still indulge in food. Such is the result of the delay between RP II and W.

As the result of his lack of philosophical comprehension, Libet could not distinguish between the wish to move and the urge or impulse to move. If urge is understood as ‘wish,’ the appearance of such wish is arbitrary, a decision of the will; the mind contemplates enacting this will, and wishing to accomplish such a deed. The determination of this wish, only after which one would be conscious of the wish to wish this activity, would of course result in some type of brain activity in order to prepare the body. But this brain activity occurs as the result of the spiritual deliberation requisite for determination of will. Thus, the buildup of RP may either indicate that the person is determining his will with respect to the sensation of physical need or impulse, or merely anticipating the becoming of his wish, expecting that he will soon in the future wish this. That is, in order to move at an instant, the body must be primed, causing a buildup of RP, which on this count is not an argument against free will. For apart from the instant of conscious wish itself, a person is, even without pre-planning, still in a certain sense mentally planning his action. For as one must make the arbitrary choice of suddenly flicking his wrist, an action that he knows he will soon perform, his body is able to respond to the consciousness of the impending deliberate mental choice to flick the wrist by being primed in what is observed as readiness potential.

Analyzing Soon and Libet’s Work

Another scientific experiment conducted by Soon et al., tested the ability to predict the decisions of the subject before the decisions were consciously made, by having a person press a button with either their left or right index finger when they felt the urge to do so (Soon et al. 2008, 543). The researchers claimed to have been predicted subject choices 10 seconds prior to such choices; however, that the accuracy of predictions was a mere sixty-percent should also lead to hesitation in leaping to the conclusion that this experiment is evidence against free will. Sixty-percent is a mere ten-percent more than the result of guessing at every other instance whether a person would move. A random game of probability would provide results not significantly different from those of the Soon experiment. Thus, that the experimenters were successful in sixty-percent of cases is only evidence that they are but half-way decent at guessing games.

In nearly half of all instances, Soon was unable to predict physical movement on the basis of the build-up of readiness-potential. In nearly half of all instances, brain states gave no evidence for future movement. In nearly half of all instances, brain states at the scientific, technological, empirical level, examining among the most basic physical functions of the human person, were unable to yield a causal account of behavior. To say that brain states caused the movement, that they caused the mental urge, is wholly unwarranted. Causality is necessary and universal, yet here it is neither, the buildup of readiness-potential not necessary for the conscious wish to move and in no interpretation always universally present prior to mental states. No causal link whatsoever has been demonstrated by Soon.

Both Libet and Soon have made the paradigmatic example of an argument from ignorance; they say that because they can see no other potential cause for the actions performed by their subjects, then the brain is the source for those actions; unknown brain events, they say, are the source for human actions. But they cannot point to these brain events; for none such exist that are the causes of action. As they have committed themselves to materialism, they cannot think in terms of a spiritual cause that alters matter. Yet such spiritual cause, readily experienced as the conscious choice of a mind, is the obvious genesis of action and behavior.

This impossibility in observing even the simplest of motor functions, among the most basic thoughts or commands that a person can issue, implies that more complex choices are impossible to study. Since the command to issue motor controls has a genesis outside of the brain, all other more complex mental activities must similarly find their ground beyond a mere physical organ.

As previously noted, readiness-potential always is related to conscious deliberation, anticipation, and choice; the former is in the brain, while the latter three are mental events. Qua mental events, they are subjective, and never in themselves come under the observation of technological instruments. They are interior, not exterior, contrasting with brain events, which are observable. That brain events follow mental events seems to be shown by the Libet experiment, as no readiness-potential occurs without mental events being reported by the subject. The suggestion, then, is that brain events, such as the build-up of readiness-potential, are causally dependent on mental states, as there is in fact both a necessary and universal connection.

If anything, the Libet experiment indicates, as the result of the difference between mental and brain events, that mental and brain events cannot be correlated, which is simply further evidence for the traditional theory that interiority precedes exteriority; the spiritual precedes the corporeal. More evidence for this is available from one of the most well-documented medical occurrences, the Placebo Effect and its lesser-known twin, the Nocebo Effect. These in particular show that mental states are in no way reducible or causally contingent on brain states, yet that brain states depend on mental states.

The placebo and nocebo effects “are treatment effects, unrelated to the treatment mechanism, which are induced by patients’ expectations of improvement or worsening respectively” (Bartels et al. 2014, 1). That is, the placebo and nocebo effects are fundamentally cognitive, determined by the expectations of individuals. These expectations are mental, not physical, and wholly subjective; yet, despite their subjectivity and existence in the mind rather than the brain, they have an established effect on the outcomes of treatments. Thus, mental states have a direct causal role on the physical world. The mind influences the brain.

For the brain, through which pain is felt, does not know that the person is taking a drug that is not active to reduce an illness, while the mind does know that the individual is using this drug, causing the placebo or nocebo effect, as the result of anticipation of success, or the absence thereof. Were there not a mind independent of the brain, the placebo and nocebo effects could never happen, since intentionality is not characteristic of the brain, yet only the conscious mind. All intentional states are mental, which must therefore be assigned real existence as the result of its causal power. Knowledge and expectation exist in the subject, the mind alone. The brain does not think, and no brain has ever thought.

On the Status of Mental States

All contemporary neuroscience rests on a fundamental assumption, which is that mental states do not exist; they are mere figments of the brain, which, qua matter, is reality. All that is, is corporeal matter, and consciousness is an illusion. Thus, to study the person, the scientist should study the physical world. The subjective states of the individual are ultimately nothing, and should not be trusted in determining the scientific view of the self. Modern science, with its emphasis on the empirical and observable, as a methodological consideration, must use this assumption, for were it to not, it would be compelled to admit that there exists that which is beyond its capacity to know.

Yet this assumption, that all is matter and mental states are an illusion, terminates in a reductio ad absurdum. For beginning with the proposition that mental states are an illusion, let this be applied to mental states regarding external objects, physical objects. For instance, take the physical object Saturn; Saturn is known qua physical object. It is seen, a process that according to neuroscience occurs by various neurons crashing together in the brain. Thus, Saturn only exists on the basis of its existing in the brain, because we only know of Saturn by the seeing in the brain, which by analogy holds true for all physical objects, including brains. The physical does not need to exist outside of the mind; it could very well be a mere construct of the brain.

The fact that Saturn is seen by multiple persons is irrelevant; for this only means that persons opine that they share the seeing of the same Saturn. The possibility still exists that each individual sees a different Saturn, where humans are stimulated with the sensation of the apparently same object. The physical world is known only through mental states; thus, the physical world is an illusion. If neuroscientists want to say that emotions are not real merely because they occur in the brain, they must likewise say that Saturn is not real, as it too exists in only the brain. All that is, whether mental or physical, becomes an illusion, including the brain itself, as brains are only known by technological observation of them. Brains are known by brains. But Saturn does exist apart from the brain; therefore, mental states also have real existence not reducible to the brain.

All subjective mental states must consequently be given actual reality, and must be considered to have the same level of reality as is had by the corporeal world. This necessitates with the force of law that the brain not be hypothesized as the source of mental activity. Any attempt to reduce mental states to brain states results in the absurdity of the whole of existence, including the spatial, becoming an illusion, for matter only exists as a representation to the conscious subject.

Following from these problems associated with the synthetic compositioning of the self as the brain, the person is not reducible, even by modern technology, thereto. Humans should not be taken as objects of technological and scientific study, yet rather in accord with their own unique way of being that respects their unique status as humans. Man must not be reduced to a material brain by instrumentality, but rather acknowledged as the center of the world of his own first-person subjectivity. The reductionism of neuroscience must be overcome to keep humanity human. Marcel in Creative Fidelity reflects this task of rejecting de-humanization, to “strengthen the fierce resolution of those who reject the consummation by themselves or others of man’s denial of man, or…the denial of the more than human by the less than human” (CF, 10).


Augustine. Confessions. Trans. John K. Ryan. New York: Image Classics, 2014.

Bambach, Charles. “Heidegger on The Question Concerning Technology and Gelassenheit.” In Social Epistemology and Technology: Toward Public Self-Awareness Regarding Technological Mediation, edited by Frank Scalambrino, 115-126. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2015.

Bartels, Danielle et al. “Role of Conditioning and Verbal Suggestion in Placebo and Nocebo Effects on Itch.” Public Library of Science One 9 (2014): 1-9.

Bonaventure. Bonaventure: The Soul’s Journey into God, The Tree of Life, The Life of Saint Francis. Translated by Ewert Cousins. New York: Paulist Press, 1978.

Heidegger, Martin. The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays. Translated by William Lovitt. London: Harper Perennial, 2013.

Kant, Immanuel. The Critique of Pure Reason. Translated by Paul Guyer and Allen Wood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Kisiel, Theodore. “Heidegger and Our Twenty-first Century Experience of Ge-Stell.” Research Resources Paper 35 (2014): 137-151.

Libet, Benjamin. “Do We Have Free Will?” In The Oxford Handbook of Free Will, edited by Robert Kane, 551-564. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Marcel, Gabriel. Creative Fidelity. Trans. Robert Rosthal. New York: Fordham University Press, 2002.

Marcel, Gabriel. The Mystery of Being, Vol. I: Reflection and Mystery. Translated by G.S. Fraser. South Bend:  St. Augustine’s Press, 1950.

Scalambrino, Frank. “The Vanishing Subject: Becoming who You Cybernetically Are.” In Social Epistemology and Technology: Toward Public Self-Awareness Regarding Technological Mediation, edited by Frank Scalambrino, 197-206. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2015.

Soon, Chun et al. “Unconscious Determinants of Free Decisions in the Human Brain.” Nature Neuroscience 11, no. 5 (2008): 543-545.

[1]. This is neuroscience in the reductionist sense that seeks to state that the mind is an illusion; it is true that there are neuroscientists who reject reductionism, and they are not those against whom this essay is articulated, insofar as they recognize the independence of the mind from the brain.

[2]. This first requires the deconstruction of the functionalized and de-humanized self to restore the mystery about the person.

[3]. Libet, “Do We Have Free Will?”

Author Information: Robert Frodeman, University of North Texas,



Image credit: nchenga, via flickr

On Disciplinary Philosophy

The relationship between the philosopher and the community has always been fraught. 20th century academic philosophy dealt with this difficulty by going disciplinary, restricting its conversations to itself.

Now, it is incorrect to say that disciplinary philosophy was not (or is not) concerned with the matters of the larger world; but the model for its having an effect has been limited to the tacit embrace of the concept of indirect effects. Impact was to be achieved through passive dissemination—teaching 20 year olds in abstract or idealized accounts of issues, the trolley problem rather than case studies or direct involvement. Similarly, research publications would slowly work themselves into the zeitgeist through a natural osmotic process rather than through practical attempts of implementation. There were of course exceptions to this; but the individuals directly and actively involved remained one-offs. Their efforts were not institutionalized in terms of undergraduate courses in philosophy or public policy or graduate programs that trained students to work with the public or private sectors.

The 2016 presidential election highlights the inadequacy of this approach. Rather, Trump announces the inevitability of public philosophy.

Questioning All Assumptions

How so? Put the point in Heidegger’s language. Heidegger caused a stir in the 1950s when he said that scientists do not think. His point, however, was reasonable if not self-evident: science—at least, normal science—begins from a set of accepted presumptions. Philosophy—at least on Heidegger’s account—is the questioning of all assumptions. This is why Heidegger put such a premium on questioning—in one work, devoting a 55 page chapter to the question of how to ask questions. (This may also be a way to define the difference between analytic and continental philosophy: the latter has an obsession with first order questions).

Similarly, with some minor exceptions (ie, the 13th and 17th amendments) American politics has not been a thinking person’s game. Like Heidegger I mean no insult, but to point out that we have been playing by a common set of rules for the last 227 years. The election of Trump represents the breaking of those rules. Don’t simply focus on his challenges to the 1st (i.e. threatening to use the power of the presidency to silence his opponents, e.g. The Washington Post) and 6th (the right to due process, ie to ‘lock her up’) Amendments. The challenge is more basic than that: Trump is a classic Platonic demagogue. His unprecedented mendacity and rhetorical bombast represents a more general destruction of democratic norms.

STS: A Successor?

Note that this implicates more than Trump himself. For all its faults this election cycle (namely, that it breathed life into the Trump phenomena from the beginning), the media did end up making Trump’s decades-long trail of lies and corruption abundantly clear. That is, the American electorate was fully warned—and elected him nonetheless. Trump, then, represents a challenge to Enlightenment assumptions of the reasonableness of man. Notably, the very cohort that went to the mat for him—white men without college degrees—is precisely the one that Trump has long dismissed as a bunch of losers, the plumbers and merchants who he serially stiffed for their services.

Trump leaves us, then, with a set of questions that are inescapably philosophic in nature: is it possible to re-establish democratic norms for an age of ubiquitous knowledge? Can democracy function in a time dominated by social media? Or should we recognize, as the Chinese have, that authoritarianism is a necessity, given the complexity of contemporary society?

These are, classically, philosophic questions. But it may be that the academic discipline of philosophy is constitutionally incapable of answering them any longer in anything more than a scholastic fashion. Moreover, these questions have a distinctive spin today, for science and technology is playing a distinctive if not determining role in the reshaping of our political landscape. STS, then, may be the successor to academic philosophy in the raising of these questions—if it can avoid philosophy’s fate of disciplinary capture.

Author Information: Dimitri Ginev, University of Sofia, Bulgaria,

Ginev, Dimitri. 2013.”Reply to Robert Crease.” Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 2 (9): 27-32.

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Robert Crease (2013) criticizes my approach to scientism for

(a) not being equal to the 21st century situation of science-society-politics relations;
(b) not taking into account the “acoustics of expertise”;
(c) not suggesting a specific treatment of experimentation;
(d) not having a proper access to the historical dynamics of science; and
(e) perverting the Heideggerian doctrine of science by underestimating the resources it offers.

Perhaps, my hermeneutic-phenomenological critique of scientism is “standing in the 1950s”. Nonetheless, I do not see a substitute for this type of critique to be offered by discourses like SSK, STS, cultural theory of expertise, standpoint epistemology, cultural studies of science, or network analysis (to mention only a few from a large list of candidates). To a great extent, Crease’s criticisms are nurtured from my paper’s deficiency to make clearer the basic distinctions it employs. So, before addressing his critical comments, I will briefly lay bare what this paper basically fails to do, namely to discriminate clearly between two (albeit closely related) aspects of scientism. In so doing, I will place in contexts my replies to (a), (b), and (e). Continue Reading…