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  1. I have not read the book, but this review of it suggests that DeNicola doesn’t address the high degree of variability in personal intelligence — or “intelligences” if Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences is accepted. In all the domains of “knowing that” and “knowing how,” there are experts (“elites”), those who could be experts but just haven’t put in the 10,000 hours, and those who lack the ability to become experts. I do think that those of us who would like to see our government become more democratic will have an ideal of citizenship that makes the voice of the people something to be valued. But my ideal of democratic citizenship is as much a moral ideal as it “elitist intellectual.”

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